Before this process had been developed, stainless wire cloth, such as that used in our cylinder molds, had to be stretched and stitched like fabric, making roll covering a time-consuming and difficult process. It will be appreciated that such embodiments may remain permeable to fluids after application of the coating, depending on the desired characteristics of the fabric and its intended use.
The web dwell time in the nip will be from 0. An industrial fabric or belt, comprising: The felt must be squeezed dry again before it picks up a new section of sheet.
These contaminants are typically particles of the particular manufacturing process such as particles of the polymer itself, lattices, additives, etc.
A sheet that is spunbound is made up of fibers that are randomly interlocking, like cotton, but not woven.
The invention is a process for producing gloss and smoothness on the surface of a paper web, comprising: Coating may also be impermeable or substantially impermeable to fluids.
This initially formed ripples on the surface.
Another important element in producing good results is having a high moisture content in the paper as it passes through the supercalender. Thereafter, if desired for finishing the other side of the web, the web 1 is advanced to a second smooth surface finishing drum with a pair of nips formed by resilient backing rolls similar to the first unit not illustrated for simplicity.
Supercalendering uniformly compacts the entire sheet to a high degree, thus flattening the surface fibers and all others, as well as producing gloss on the surface. Process according to claim 1, wherein the finishing apparatus comprises an additional nip formed by a second smooth metal finishing drum and a resilient backing roll and through which the web advances with the side of the web against the drum which is opposite from the side against the first drum in the first nip and the temperature of the surface of the drum in the additional nip being determined in the manner in which it is determined for the first nip, making adjustments for a decrease in moisture content between the first and second drum.
Although some of the prior art relating to gloss calendering recognized the effects of temperature on moldability of the coating and the surface fibers of uncoated paper, none recognized the existence of a critical strata beneath the surface of the fibers which must be molded flat to obtain the flatness and smoothness of supercalendering.
Process according to claim 8, wherein prior to step B the web is coated on at least one side with a coating composition comprising paper coating pigments and binder in an amount of at least 7.
In this example, the coating is applied to create a sheath on individual yarns of the structure. Example 3 produced too little data to produce the full curves of the other examples, but the temperature settings in that test were chosen in accordance with the above formula with the intent to show the inflection of gloss and flatness near the unexpected rise.
If the temperature is too high, the web must be sped through the nip too fast to provide the dwell time needed as well as perhaps being beyond commercially feasible machine speeds. Under his supervision, Hayden offered several services to the papermaking and allied industries, ranging from a trademarked line of Kab-O-Rap fiberglass bulk fluid storage tanks to a process for building up worn areas of machine components with a gun that sprayed metal.
Process according to claim 1, wherein the moisture content of the web is substantially uniform throughout the web. The fabric or belt of claim 13, wherein the coating includes organic or inorganic or metallic particles or combination thereof.
Alternatively, the coating materials may be mixed and uniformly distributed therein prior to being supplied to the spray gun. Our MatchPress and MatchFlow roll covers running reliably and deliver consistent paper quality for our customers.
Although operating in the range of this additional benefit has the disadvantages mentioned above, it may be valuable to do so when exceptionally high smoothness is desired.
Developments within the wire cloth industry were only one of his interests. For example, current calender belts are composed of a flexible urethane or rubber-like resin layer applied to a reinforcing yarn structure.
Those of Caxton and other early printers were an oxhead and star, a collared dog's head, a crown, a shield, a jug, etc.
A shoe type calender includes a cylindrical press roll and an arcuate pressure shoe which together define a nip there between. The final coating is well-adhered, strong, and dense.
On the left side one can see the Parker Print-Surf and gloss increase at a steady rate with increasing temperature up to about In fact, the range of components that could benefit from metallized coatings was so great that Hayden soon devoted nearly all of its resources to supporting this service.
The cellulosic fibrous web passes through the press nips supported by a press fabric, or, as is often the case, between two such press fabrics. Accordingly, the context in which the term is used and the intended meaning being conveyed will be apparent to one skilled in the art.
To determine this temperature a number of factors are involved. First, the Tg must be adjusted for the dynamic conditions involved in high speed finishing i. The one most controllable is pressure, because it can be changed precisely and instantaneously.
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